Oral Anticoagulants May Help In Resolving Subclinical Leaflet Thrombosis Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis and systematic review was performed to evaluate the clinical relevance of subclinical leaflet thrombosis (SLT) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PubMed, Web of Science, and CENTRAL were searched for eligible randomized and nonrandomized studies until November 2020. Risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated, using a random-effects model. Overall, 25 studies were eligible for the analysis and comprised a total of 11,098 patients. The median incidence of SLT was 6% at a median follow-up of 30 days. Use of intra-annular valves was associated with 2-fold greater risk for the development of SLT compared with use of supra-annular valves. There was no difference in the risk for SLT (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.29; P = 0.83) between single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) and dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), whereas oral anticoagulation (OAC) was associated with a 58% relative risk reduction for SLT (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.29-0.61; P < 0.00001) compared with SAPT and DAPT. In patients with diagnosed leaflet thrombosis at follow-up, the risk for stroke or transient ischemic attack was increased by 2.6-fold (RR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.60-4.09; P < 0.00001) compared with patients without leaflet thrombosis. In patients diagnosed with SLT, the odds of SLT resolution increased by 99% after switch from antiplatelet agents to OAC (odds ratio: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.06; P < 0.00001). To summarize, indication-based use of OAC after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with a lower risk for SLT compared with SAPT and DAPT. Switching to OAC seems to be effective for SLT resolution. As SLT increased the odds of stroke or transient ischemic attack in the included population, further studies are needed to investigate whether screening tests for SLT and appropriate antithrombotic therapy improve long-term valve functionality and clinical prognosis.

Bogyi Matthias, et al. Subclinical Leaflet Thrombosis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Meta-Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2021 Dec, 14 (24) 2643–2656