Adding Vasodilatory Prostaglandin E1 Improves Treatment Efficacy of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

PERSPECTIVES: To evaluate the treatment outcome of vasodilator prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in treating sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and to determine its effects on platelet activation, as reflected by changes in CD62p and PAC-1.

METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 60 patients with confirmed SSNHL and randomly divided them into two groups: the SSNHL group received regular therapy, and the SSNHL-PGE1 group received additional intravenous injection of PGE1. After 14 days of treatment, we measured clinical improvement and CD62p-positive and PAC-1-positive platelets. 30 healthy medical staff members were included as a control group.

RESULTS: The SSNHL patients had significantly higher levels of CD62p-positive or PAC-1 positive platelets than the healthy subjects. The ratios of CD62p positive or PAC-1 positive platelets significantly decreased after the two treatments. The average pure tone (PTA) hearing thresholds decreased to 26.51 ± 12.65 dB in SSNHL-PGE1 group after treatment, which was significantly lower than that of the SSNHL group (34.46 ± 10.35 dB). Patients with initial severe or profound hearing loss (PTA ≥ 71 dB) had better hearing improvement on PGE1 than on the regular treatment. Patients in the SSNHL-PGE1 treatment group had significantly lower CD62p and PAC-1 levels than those in the SSNHL group. Patients with higher initial positive CD62p and PAC-1 ratios tended to have higher potential of clinical improvement and hearing gains after PGE1 treatment. Initial CD62p and PAC-1 levels were significantly correlated with hearing thresholds in patients with SSNHL.

CONCLUSION: PGE1 application could improve treatment efficacy and suppress excessive platelet activation in patients with SSNHL.

Xi J, et al. Prostaglandin E1 effects on CD62p and PAC-1 in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Thromb Res. 2020 Jan 23;188:31-38. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.01.023. [Epub ahead of print]