ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and Th17 cytokines are important mediators of inflammation. Treatment with beta-adrenoceptor (ADRB) antagonists (beta-blockers) is associated with induction or aggravation of psoriasis-like skin inflammation, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we identify lysosomotropic beta-blockers as critical inducers of IL23A in human monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells under sterile-inflammatory conditions. Cytokine release was not mediated by cAMP, suggesting the involvement of ADRB-independent pathways. NFKB/NF-κB and MAPK14/p38 activation was required for propranolol-induced IL23A secretion whereas the NLRP3 inflammasome was dispensable. MAPK14 regulated recruitment of RELB to IL23A promoter regions. Without affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, propranolol increased lysosomal pH and induced a late-stage block in macroautophagy/autophagy. Propranolol specifically induced reactive oxygen species production, which was critical for IL23A secretion, in Langerhans-like cells. Our findings provide insight into a potentially crucial immunoregulatory mechanism in cutaneous dendritic cells that may explain how lysosomotropic drugs regulate inflammatory responses.Abbreviations: ATF: activating transcription factor; DC: dendritic cell; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; gDNA: genomic DNA; IL: interleukin; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LC: Langerhans cell; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MoDC: monocyte-derived DC; MoLC: monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cell; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NLRP3: NLR family pyrin domain containing 3; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PI: propidium iodide; PYCARD/ASC: PYD and CARD domain containing; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TLR: Toll-like receptor; TRAF6: TNF receptor associated factor 6; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; Ub: ubiquitin.
Müller G, et al. Lysosomotropic beta blockers induce oxidative stress and IL23A production in Langerhans cells. Autophagy. 2019 Nov 7:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1686728. [Epub ahead of print]