- Mulberry Fruit Extract Able to Reduce Post-Prandial Glycemic and Post-Prandial Insulin Responses
- Meta-analysis Shows that Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Consumption is not Associated with an Increased risk of Atrial Fibrillation
- Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study Shows That Regular Kombucha Tea Consumption Improves Fasting Blood Sugar in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
- Adding Manuka Honey and Omega-3 Fish Oil Reduces Hemolytic Activities in Patients with Beta Thalassemia
- Ginkgo Extract and Dementia Drug Combination Improves Cognitive Function Better than Taking Dementia Drug Alone
- Vaginal Evening Primrose Oil More Effective than Vaginal Misoprostol for Ripening for Cervix before Hysteroscopy and D&C Procedure
- Veronia Cinerea may Help with Smoke Cessation, and it is as Effective as Nortriptyline
- Spirulina Intake Improves Cognitive Function and Glucose Homeostasis in Alzheimer’s Patients
- Saffron Extract Shown to be as Effective as Methylphenidate in ADHD Children and Adolescents
- Curcumin Adds Minimal Benefit to Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Beyond Lifestyle Intervention
- Cornelian Cherry Extract Improves Blood Pressure Control and Body Fat in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Patients
- Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Shows Spirulina Supplementation can Improve Lipid Profile in Dyslipidemia Patients
1. Mulberry Fruit Extract Able to Reduce Post-Prandial Glycemic and Post-Prandial Insulin Responses
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the addition of a specified mulberry fruit extract (MFE) to rice consistently reduces post-prandial glycaemic (PPG) and post-prandial insulinemic (PPI) responses. This research tested whether this effect generalizes to a broad range of rice types, reflecting the wide variation in rice characteristics known to influence glycaemic responses. In a randomized, balanced, partial factorial crossover design, Sona Masoori (SM), Bora Saul (BS), Gobindobogh (Gb) and Banskati (Bn) rices were tested with and without 0·37 g MFE. Healthy, normal-weight Indian adults (N 120) each consumed four of the eight possible boiled rice meals, all containing about 50 g available carbohydrate. The primary outcome was the effect of MFE on PPG, expressed as the percentage change in the positive, incremental AUC over 2 h. The mean effect of MFE on PPG for all rice types combined was -11·4 % (P < 0·003). The reduction in PPG was in a qualitatively similar range for all rice types (-9·8 to -15·1 %), and this was statistically significant for Bn. MFE also reduced the corresponding PPI response to all rice types combined by a mean of 10·1 % (P < 0·001; range -6·1 to -13·4 %), and the reduction in PPI was statistically significant for SM, Gb and BS. In conclusion, addition of 0·37 g MFE modestly reduced PPG and PPI responses to rices in general, and the effects were statistically significant for specific rice types.
Mela DJ, et al. Effect of mulberry fruit extract on post-prandial glycaemic and insulinemic responses to different rice types: a randomized trial in healthy adults. Br J Nutr. 2023 Jun 5;1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114523001319. Online ahead of print.
2. Meta-analysis Shows that Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Consumption is not Associated with an Increased risk of Atrial Fibrillation
BACKGROUND: The relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prospective associations of blood or adipose tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with incident AF.
METHODS: We used participant-level data from a global consortium of 17 prospective cohort studies, each with baseline data on blood or adipose tissue omega-3 fatty acid levels and AF outcomes. Each participating study conducted a de novo analyses using a prespecified analytical plan with harmonized definitions for exposures, outcome, covariates, and subgroups. Associations were pooled using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Among 54,799 participants from 17 cohorts, 7,720 incident cases of AF were ascertained after a median 13.3 years of follow-up. In multivariable analysis, EPA levels were not associated with incident AF, HR per interquartile range (ie, the difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles) was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.95-1.05). HRs for higher levels of DPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA, were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96), and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In vivo levels of omega-3 fatty acids including EPA, DPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA were not associated with increased risk of incident AF. Our data suggest the safety of habitual dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids with respect to AF risk. Coupled with the known benefits of these fatty acids in the prevention of adverse coronary events, our study suggests that current dietary guidelines recommending fish/omega-3 fatty acid consumption can be maintained.
Qian F, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Incident Atrial Fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2023 Jul 25;82(4):336-349. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.05.024.
3. Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Study Shows That Regular Kombucha Tea Consumption Improves Fasting Blood Sugar in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
INTRODUCTION: Kombucha is a popular fermented tea that has attracted considerable attention due, in part, to its suggested health benefits. Previous results from animal models led us to hypothesize kombucha may reduce blood sugar levels in humans with diabetes. The objective of this pilot clinical study was to evaluate kombucha for its anti-hyperglycemic activities in adults with diabetes mellitus type II.
METHODS: The study was organized as a prospective randomized double-blinded crossover study at a single-center urban hospital system. Participants (n = 12) were instructed to consume either a kombucha product or a placebo control (each 240 mL) for 4 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, participants consumed the alternate product. Fasting blood glucose levels were self-determined at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks during each treatment period. Secondary health outcomes, including overall health, insulin requirement, gut health, skin health, mental health, and vulvovaginal health were measured by questionnaire at the same time points. The kombucha microbiota was assessed by selective culturing and 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and ITS (fungi) sequencing. Fermentation end products were assessed by HPLC. Statistical significance of changes in fasting blood glucose was determined using paired, two-tailed student’s t-tests.
RESULTS: Kombucha lowered average fasting blood glucose levels at 4 weeks compared to baseline (164 vs. 116 mg/dL, p = 0.035), whereas the placebo did not (162 vs. 141 mg/dL, p = 0.078). The kombucha microbiota, as assessed by cultural enumeration, was mainly comprised of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast, with each group present at about 106 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Likewise, 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria were the most abundant bacteria, and ITS sequencing showed Dekkera was the most abundant yeast. The primary fermentation end products were lactic and acetic acids, both less than 1%. Ethanol was present at 1.5%.
DISCUSSION: Although this pilot study was limited by a small sample size, kombucha was associated with reduced blood glucose levels in humans with diabetes. Larger follow-up studies are warranted.
Mendelson C, et al. Kombucha tea as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in humans with diabetes – a randomized controlled pilot investigation. Front Nutr. 2023; 10: 1190248. Published online 2023 Aug 1. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1190248
4. Adding Manuka Honey and Omega-3 Fish Oil Reduces Hemolytic Activities in Patients with Beta Thalassemia
OBJECTIVE: β-thalassemia major is an inherited hematological disorder with significant oxidative stress and iron overload. Oxidative stress results in several pathological complications, including cell death, tissue injury, organ dysfunction, and thyroid dysfunction. The present study examined the effectiveness of omega-3 and Manuka honey combination or Manuka honey alone to the conventional therapy (deferasirox, blood transfusion, and L-carnitine) used for preventing and managing oxidative stress or iron overload-induced oxidative stress conditions in pediatric β-thalassemic patients (type major).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 165 patients participated in this randomized, double-blind, standard therapy-controlled, parallel-design multisite trial. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups, receiving either 1,000 mg omega-3 fish oil [350 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 250 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] combined with Manuka honey lozenge (344 mg) daily or Manuka honey alone plus the conventional therapy for ten months. Plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), CRP (C-reactive protein), ferritin level, and serum iron were determined at baseline and month 10.
RESULTS: Omega-3 and Manuka honey combination were a significant add-on to conventional therapy of β-thalassemia in reducing the oxidative stress condition. The combination of Omega-3 and Manuka honey reduced the level of F2-isoprostane(8-iso-PGF2α) significantly compared to the Manuka alone and the control groups. Additionally, they showed an antihemolytic action measured by reduced LDH level. The combination restored the patient’s lipid profile (LDL-C and HDL-C) significantly compared to the control group. Manuka honey enhanced the action of omega-3 in reducing oxidative stress by reducing serum iron significantly compared to the control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that omega-3 + Manuka honey was more effective than Manuka alone or the conventional treatment alone in managing oxidative stress of β-thalassemic patients.
Gamaleldin M, et al. Comparative effectiveness of adding omega-3 and Manuka honey combination to conventional therapy in preventing and treating oxidative stress in pediatric β-thalassemia major – a randomized clinical trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Jul;27(13):6058-6070. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202307_32960.
5. Ginkgo Extract and Dementia Drug Combination Improves Cognitive Function Better than Taking Dementia Drug Alone
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a neurocognitive state between normal aging and dementia. There is currently no approved treatment for MCI, with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) being the commonly prescribed drugs. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 is an herbal remedy used for cognitive disorders, including dementia. This study aims to explore the potential synergistic effect of combination therapy with EGb 761 plus AChEI in patients with amnestic MCI in a real-life setting.
METHODS: We retrospectively identified 133 patients with amnestic MCI who were attending a memory clinic. Patients had received treatment with any of the following drugs: G. biloba extract EGb 761, donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine at their standard doses. Subjects were divided into three treatment groups: EGb 761, AChEI, and EGb 761+AChEI. Patients were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Boston Naming Test, Trail Making Test (TMT Parts A and B), Letter and Category Fluency Test (LFT, CFT), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living. Mixed-effects model analysis was carried out to evaluate changes in cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes over a 12-month follow-up.
RESULTS: After 12 months, EGb 761+AChEI showed significant improvement in MMSE, RAVLT, CFT, TMT A-B, and NPI compared to AChEI and in MMSE and RAVLT compared to EGb 761. At 12 months, EGb 761 was superior to AChEI on the CFT, TMT A-B, and NPI.
DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that combined therapy with EGb 761 plus AChEI may provide added cognitive and functional benefits in patients with MCI and provides additional real-world evidence for the combined use of EGb 761 and anti-dementia drugs in patients with MCI. This study can serve as a model for the design of clinical trials that help to support the combined use of EGb 761 and anti-dementia drugs in patients with MCI.
García-Alberca JM, et al. Combined treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 plus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors improved cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2022 Aug 2;8(1):e12338. doi: 10.1002/trc2.12338. eCollection 2022.
6. Vaginal Evening Primrose Oil More Effective than Vaginal Misoprostol for Ripening for Cervix before Hysteroscopy and D&C Procedure
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of evening primrose oil (EPO) for cervical ripening before gynecologic procedures and compare it to misoprostol. In this study, 40 hysteroscopy and dilation and curettage candidates were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 2000 mg of vaginal EPO (n = 20) or 200 μg of vaginal misoprostol (n = 20) 2 hours before the expected procedure.
The measured outcomes were the size of the Hegar dilator that passed through the cervix effortlessly, uterine cervicovaginal complications, and drug-related side effects. The two groups were not significantly different in age, number of gravity, parity, type of delivery, and menopausal status (P > .05). The mean ± SD size of the first dilator was 5.25 ± 1.55 in the misoprostol group and 7.30 ± 1.08 in the EPO group (P < .001). The pain complaint in the EPO group was significantly lower (P = .027), but the two groups were not significantly different in terms of other complications. No cases of uterine or cervical rupture were seen in either group. The present study showed that 2000 mg of vaginal EPO was significantly more effective for cervical ripening than 200 μg of vaginal misoprostol before gynecological surgery. Therefore, it is recommended to use EPO as an alternative to misoprostol.
Rahbar N, et al. Comparison of Misoprostol and Evening Primrose Oil on Cervical Preparation Before Gynecological Surgery. J Clin Pharmacol. 2023 Aug;63(8):880-885.doi: 10.1002/jcph.2253. Epub 2023 May 26.
7. Veronia Cinerea may Help with Smoke Cessation, and it is as Effective as Nortriptyline
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Vernonia cinerea (VC) and nortriptyline for smoking cessation. A randomized, active-comparator, open-label trial was conducted in 2019. A total of 84 patients participated in the study, and equally randomized with 42 participants in each group. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference of continuous abstinence rate (CAR) between VC and nortriptyline group (Odd ratio 0.68, 95%CI 0.25-1.85, P=0.451). After week 12, the end of treatment, CAR between both groups was not different (44.44% vs 45.95%, Odd ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.23-2.54, P>0.999).
After follow up by the end of research at week 24, the CAR in both groups was not different (41.67% vs 43.24%, Odd ratio 0.76, 95%CI 0.23-2.55, P>0.999). After week 24, relapse rate between VC and nortriptyline group was not different (13.89% vs 10.81%, P=0.923). In addition, both groups were effective in reducing the number of cigarettes per day compared to baseline. However, there was no difference between the groups.
Overall, the VC group had an 8% smoking rate less than nortriptyline group, but not statistically significant (IRR 0.92, 95%CI 0.59-1.43, P=0.702). They also resulted in reducing the exhaled CO level at treatment period and wash out period (at week 12; 7(-17-20) vs 7(-12-16), mean difference 0.78, 95%CI -3.07-4.63, P>0.999, at week 24; 8(-5-22) vs 8.5(-5-17), mean difference 0.39, 95%CI -3.46-4.24, P>0.999).
Overall, there was no difference between either group (mean difference -0.31, 95%CI -3.10-2.47). For safety data, adverse events including tongue bitter taste or numbness were found in VC group to be greater than in nortriptyline group (61.9% vs 30.95%, P=0.004), whereas dry mouth and drowsiness were greater found in nortriptyline group (35.71% vs 90.48%, P<0.001 and 16.67% vs 90.48%, P<0.001, respectively). Serious adverse events were not found. In smoking cessation, efficacy and safety of either VC or nortriptyline showed no difference.
Tuenthosarn K, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Vernonia cinerea for Smoking Cessation: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2023 Jan 1;24(1):101-109.oi: 10.31557/APJCP.2023.24.1.101.
8. Spirulina Intake Improves Cognitive Function and Glucose Homeostasis in Alzheimer’s Patients
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to determine the effects of spirulina intake on cognitive function and metabolic status among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was done among 60 subjects with AD. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg/day spirulina or a placebo (each n = 30) twice a day for 12 weeks. Mini-mental state examination score (MMSE) was recorded in all patients before and after intervention. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks’ intervention to determine metabolic markers.
Compared with placebo, spirulina intake resulted in a significant improvement in MMSE score (spirulina group: +0.30 ± 0.99 vs. Placebo group: -0.38 ± 1.06, respectively, p = 0.01). In addition, spirulina intake decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (spirulina group: -0.17 ± 0.29 vs. Placebo group: +0.05 ± 0.27 mg/L, p = 0.006), fasting glucose (spirulina group: -4.56 ± 7.93 vs. Placebo group: +0.80 ± 2.95 mg/dL, p = 0.002), insulin (spirulina group: -0.37 ± 0.62 vs. Placebo group: +0.12 ± 0.40 μIU/mL, p = 0.001) and insulin resistance (spirulina group: -0.08 ± 0.13 vs. Placebo group: 0.03 ± 0.08, p = 0.001), and increased insulin sensitivity (spirulina group: +0.003 ± 0.005 vs. Placebo group: -0.001 ± 0.003, p = 0.003) compared with the placebo. Overall, our study showed that spirulina intake for 12 weeks in patients with AD improved cognitive function, glucose homeostasis parameters, and hs-CRP levels.
Tamtaji OR, et al. The effects of spirulina intake on clinical and metabolic parameters in Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2023 Jul;37(7):2957-2964. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7791. Epub 2023 Mar 2.
9. Saffron Extract Shown to be as Effective as Methylphenidate in ADHD Children and Adolescents
INTRODUCTION: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder worldwide. Choice treatment includes psychostimulants, but parents tend to be reluctant to administer them due to side effects, and alternatives are needed. Saffron extract is a natural stimulant that has been proven safe and effective for treating a variety of mental disorders.
This study compares the efficacy of saffron and the usual treatment with methylphenidate, using objective and pen-and-paper tests. We performed a non-randomized clinical trial with two groups, methylphenidate (n = 27) and saffron (n = 36), in children and adolescents aged 7 to 17. Results show that the efficacy of saffron is comparable to that of methylphenidate. Saffron is more effective for treating hyperactivity symptoms, while methylphenidate is more effective for inattention symptoms.
Blasco-Fontecilla H, et al. Effectivity of Saffron Extract (Saffr Activ) on Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Clinical Effectivity Study. Nutrients. 2022 Oct; 14(19): 4046. Published online 2022 Sep 28. doi: 10.3390/nu14194046
10. Curcumin Adds Minimal Benefit to Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Beyond Lifestyle Intervention
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Curcumin has been shown to exert glucose-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects in type 2 diabetes. Hence, we investigated curcumin’s effects on atherogenesis markers, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue-related indicators in patients with NAFLD. In this secondary analysis of a 12-week randomized controlled trial, fifty-two patients with NAFLD received lifestyle modification. In addition, they were randomly allocated to either the curcumin group (1.5 g/day) or the matching placebo.
Outcome variables (assessed before and after the study) were: the fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver score (FLS), BMI, age, ALT, TG score (BAAT), triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, Castelli risk index-I (CRI-I), Castelli risk index-II (CRI-II), TG/HDL–C ratio, atherogenic coefficient (AC), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), lipoprotein combine index (LCI), cholesterol index (CHOLINDEX), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI), visceral adiposity index (VAI), metabolic score for visceral fat (METS-VF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) values. The TyG index decreased in the curcumin group and increased in the placebo group, with a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.029).
However, a between-group change was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Other indices were not significantly different between the groups either before or after multiple test correction. After the intervention, there was a lower number of patients with severe fatty liver (FLI ≥ 60) and metabolic syndrome in the curcumin group compared to the placebo (p = 0.021 and p = 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, curcumin offers no additional cardiometabolic benefits to lifestyle intervention in patients with NAFLD.
Naseri K, et al. Curcumin Offers No Additional Benefit to Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Status in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients. 2022 Aug; 14(15): 3224. Published online 2022 Aug 6. doi: 10.3390/nu14153224
11. Cornelian Cherry Extract Improves Blood Pressure Control and Body Fat in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Patients
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with NAFLD are at increased risk for hypertension. Some investigations have hypothesized that Cornus mas L. fruit can improve obesity and hypertension. We investigated the effect of C. mas L. fruit extract on blood pressure, anthropometric and body composition indices in patients with NAFLD.
METHODS: This 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on fifty patients with NAFLD. Patients received 20 cc/d C. mas L. fruit extract or placebo. We measured diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat mass (BFM), body fat percent (BFP) and fat free mass (FFM) before and after intervention.
RESULTS: Treatment group compared to control group showed a significant reduction in DBP (-8.62 ± 11.86 mmHg vs. 0.53 ± 8.53 mmHg; Pcrude = 0.003; Padjucted = 0.03) and SBP (-8.63 ± 14.37 mmHg vs. 0.0 ± 12.67 mmHg; Pcrude = 0.02; Padjucted = 0.02). We found no difference between groups in weight, WC, HC, WHR, BFM, BFP and FFM (P > 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, a significant reduction was observed in treatment group compared to control group in BFM (-0.2 ± 3.9 kg vs. 0.7 ± 2.4 kg; P = 0.01) and BFP (-0.2 ± 4.9% vs. 0.8 ± 2.8%; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: C. mas L. fruit extract statistically reduced blood pressure and body fat. However, it had no effect on other anthropometric and body composition indices. Studies with larger sample sizes and higher dosages of extract are needed.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on 30/9/2018 at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20180419039359N1 (https://www.irct.ir/trial/30707).Yorhosseini F, et al. Effect of Cornus mas L. fruit extract on blood pressure, anthropometric and body composition indices in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2023 Aug;56:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2023.04.018. Epub 2023 May 6
12. Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Shows Spirulina Supplementation can Improve Lipid Profile in Dyslipidemia Patients
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Dyslipidemia is one of the main causal risk factors for CVD that can be controlled by modifying lifestyle, which entails the use of healthy diets containing functional foods. The present study was conducted to summarize the effects of Spirulina on the lipid profile in previous randomized controlled trials.
METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, Clarivate Analytics Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically until January 2023, for clinical interventions that investigated the effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid profile concentrations.
RESULTS: pooled results of 20 studies (with 23 arms and 1076 participants) indicated that Spirulina intervention significantly reduced LDL-C (SMD: -0.6, 95% CI: -0.9, -0.2, P<0.05), TC (SMD: -0.6, 95% CI: -0.9, -0.2, P<0.05) and TG (SMD: -0.6, 95% CI: -0.9, -0.2, P<0.05) levels while HDL-C levels were significantly increased (SMD: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.6, P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present meta-analysis and review show the usefulness of supplementing with Spirulina in improving serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C.
Rahnama I, et al. The effect of Spirulina supplementation on lipid profile: GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of data from randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res. 2023 Jul;193:106802. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2023.106802. Epub 2023 May 30.